19 August. This day sees the disastrous raid off Dieppe, foreseen as a test of Allied forces in a coastal offensive and of German defence methods against such a move. Nearly six thousand men are involved, mostly Canadian but also induding British, American and Free French. Although the landing is completed, few of the targeted installations are attacked. Fifty percent of the Canadian troops are killed or captured on the beach. Allied equipment is knocked out by German anti-tank guns, and only a fraction of the invading force is evacuated. Some 3,350 men are killed or captured, plus 106 aircraft, a destroyer, 30 tanks and three dozen landing-craft. The Germans lose 600 men and 170 aircraft (RAF claim). The failure of the mission is substantially due to the advance warning the Germans have received via their radio intelligence service which has been intercepting British transmissions between stations along the south coast. In the event, this frightful escapade is probably a blessing in disguise in that it brings a more determined assessment of the tactics for such multi-force actions and convinces the planners that a preliminary bombardment is vital to a major amphibious landing.