This volume continues the tradition of publishing key presentations from a series of International Conferences on the Ecology and Management of Alien Plant Invasions (EMAPi) held biennially since 1992 (see de Waal et al. 1994, Py‰ek et al. 1995, Brock et al. 1997, Starfinger et al., 1998, Brundu et al. 2001). The first conference, held in Loughborough, UK brought together the latest research and thinking on alien plant management within Europe. Since then, the conference has widened its scope having been hosted in Kostelec nad Cernymi lesy, Czech Republic; Tempe, Arizona USA; Berlin, Germany; La Maddalena, Sardinia Italy; and most recently, in Loughborough in September 2001. The number of participating countries and organisations has increased steadily over the years with 22 countries
and 5 continents represented at the most recent Loughborough conference.
This is an indication of the globalworld wide importance of plant invasions and the need to network globally to exchange research outcomes, ideas and best practice in the management of invasive plants. The effects of plant invasions are widespread and pose an significant threat to global biodiversity. In February 2001, IUCN (The World Conservation Union) published on-line the “Guidelines for the Prevention of Biodiversity Loss caused by Alien Invasive Species” (IUCN 2001). These guidelines were prepared by ISSG (Invasive Species Specialist Group) in collaboration with other experts on alien invasive species and the IUCN Commission on Environmental Law. They were formerly adopted by the IUCN at its 51st Council Meeting in February 2001. The European Community has recognised the proliferation of invasive alien species as an emerging issue and has funded some research. At European level the Community has recognised the The recent EU (European Union) biodiversity strategy (European Commission 1998, European Environment Agency 2003) calls for the
application of the precautionary principle to avoid detrimental effects of invasive alien species.
It is against this background that academics, land managers, contractors and researchers need to exchange information, share knowledge and create best practice guidelines for detecting, preventing further spread, mapping, monitoring, managing
and eradicating invasive species. This volume explores ecological threats posed by alien plants through relevant
case studies of species biology and ecology, mechanisms of invasion, ecological impacts, the relationship between invasive species and their congeners and offers management solutions through a variety of control and management techniques. The terminology associated with plant invasions is diverse and sometimes confusing. We have tried to standardise the terms used in this book by following the
suggestions given by Richardson et al. (2000).




Index of Main Taxa

Section 1 – Mechanism and impacts
Understanding patterns of plant invasion at different spatial scales: quantifying the roles of environment and propagule pressure
Mathieu Rouget and David M. Richardson

The introduction of American plant species into Europe: issues and Consequences
Jennifer Forman

A methodological approach for mapping alien plants in Sardinia (Italy)
Giuseppe Brundu, Ignazio Camarda and Vincenzo Satta

On the rates of spread of alien plants in Britain
Mark Williamson, Chris Preston and Mark Telfer

Invasion of the Portuguese dune ecosystems by the exotic species
Acacia longifolia (Andrews) Willd.: effects at the community level
Hélia Marchante, Elizabete Marchante and Helena Freitas

Section 2 – Alien floras
The alien flora of Germany – basics from a new German database
Ingolf Kühn and Stefan Klotz

Temporal niche separation of the alien flora of Rome (Italy)
Laura Celesti-Grapow, Piera Di Marzio and Carlo Blasi

Alien flora of the Czech Republic, its composition, structure and history
Petr Py‰ek, Jifií Sádlo & Bohumil Mandák

What kind of plants are invasive in Hungary?
Lajos Balogh, Zoltán Botta-Dukát and István Dancza

The expansion of some alien plant species (neophytes) in Poland
Barbara Tokarska-Guzik

Neophyte establishment in post-industrial waste sites (in Upper Silesia;
Gabriela Woêniak

Section 3 – Species ecology – congeners
Japanese Knotweed s.l. at home and abroad
John Bailey

Further evidence of the role of Dolgellau, Wales, in the production and
dispersal of Japanese Knotweed s.l.Catherine H. Pashley, John P. Bailey and Colin Ferris

Invasiveness of Oenothera congeners in Europe related to seed
Stanislav Mihulka, Petr Py‰ek and Jana Martínková

Competition between the Alien Bidens frondosa and its native Congener
Bidens tripartita
Helena Gruberová and Karel Prach

Phenotypic variability in native populations of Lythrum salicaria L. across
geographical gradient: between – and within – population differences
Da‰a Bastlová and Jan Kvût

Invasion by South African Carpobrotus (Aizoaceae) taxa in the
Mediterranean Basin: the effects of islands on plant reproductive systems
Carey M. Suehs, Frédéric Médail and Laurence Affre

Section 4 – Case studies
Elaeagnus angustifolia (Russian olive) seed banks from invaded riparian
habitats in northeastern Arizona
John H. Brock

Invasion of Gleditsia triacanthos L. (Fabaceae) in San Lorenzo mountain
forest (Northwest Argentina)
Marta Leonor de Viana and Federico Colombo Speroni

Generative and vegetative reproduction of Helianthus tuberosus, an
invasive plant in central Europe
Petra Konvalinková

Experimental invasion of woodland by the alien Impatiens glandulifera:
the role of slug herbivory
Alicia J. Prowse and Frank Goodridge

Distribution of four Atriplex species with different degrees of invasiveness
in the Czech Republic
Bohumil Mandák

Section 5 – Control
A novel herbicidal gel technique for controlling the vine Celastrus
orbiculatus (climbing spindleberry)
Brian Ward and Ron Henzell

Biological control of invasive weeds in the UK: opportunities and
Richard H. Shaw

Susceptibility of a plant invader to a pathogenic fungus: an experimental
study of Heracleum mantegazzianum (Giant Hogweed) and Sclerotinia
Marianne Erneberg, Beate Strandberg and Brita Dahl Jensen

Predicting the potential distribution of the biological control agent
blackberry leaf rust (Phragmidium violaceum) and its impact on
European blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) in Victoria, Australia
J. Patrick Pigott, John Weiss, Katherine J. Evans and Franz Mahr

Section 6 – Management
Managing Alien Plant invasion in the Kruger National Park, South Africa
Llewellyn C. Foxcroft and David M. Richardson

Achieving co-ordinated control of Fallopia japonica: a comparison of
case studies in Swansea and Cornwall, UK
Max Wade, Sean Hathaway, Trevor Renals and Lois Child

Native and alien trees in San Lorenzo village: a project with high school
Federico Colombo Speroni, Marta Leonor de Viana, Ana María
Hernández and Carolina Aibar

The evaluation and management of aquatic weeds in New Zealand
Paul D. Champion and John S. Clayton

List of Contributors